Data Miocene

Data for the DeepMIP-Miocene Group

Data from the MioMIP1 Opportunistic Multi-Model Ensemble

Burls et al. (2021) synthesized available Miocene surface temperature reconstructions. A new synthesis of Middle Miocene terrestrial mean annual temperature (MAT) estimates can be found in their supporting information (additional excel file Table S1). Late, Middle and MCO SST estimates were compiled using published data sets, a summary of these data sets with links to their repositories has been complied in their supporting information (additional excel file Table S2). These datasets have also been archived in a Zenodo repository Note that there is a hosted at Stockholm University.

The synthesis of published Miocene SST records in Burls et al. (2021) formed the initial compilation of data for the Miocene Temperature Portal hosted at Stockholm University. This portal collates a growing list of key information about published Miocene sea surface temperature records to enable researchers to rapidly locate and evaluate datasets relevant to the study of Miocene climate change.

Acosta et al. (2023), synthesized available Miocene hydroclimate reconstructions and hydrological fields from Miocene climate simulations. Their new synthesis of early-to-middle (E2MMIO) and middle-to-late (M2LMIO) Miocene terrestrial Mean Annual precipitation (MAP) reconstructions can be found in the supplementary excel file (MioMIP_MAP_compilation) and in Zenodo repository ( The hydrological fields from the Miocene climate simulations analyzed can be found in the same Zenodo repository ( which provides compiled precipitation, evaporation, and surface temperature from the simulations targeting the E2MMIO and M2LMIO periods with varying CO2 concentrations (280, 400, 560 and 850 ppm). Synthesis of the master code for various figures in the manuscript are found in a separate Zenodo repository (

Table 1: Additional Miocene Simulations that have been published since the Burls et al. (2021) & Acosta et al. (2023) synthesis papers are listed in the table below and are available for further Miocene MIP of opportunity analysis. Please contact the lead.

Climate ModelTarget Miocene IntervalCO2 ConcentrationsPaleogeographyPublished / UnpublishedLead
NorESM1-F14Ma & 17Ma (with orbital sensitivity experiments for 17Ma)1.5x, 2x, 2.5xFluteau et al., (in prepare)Unpublished - publication plannedNing Tan
NASA GISS-E2.1+GMMCO1.6x CO2 (of 285.2) = 456 ppm CO2 with CH4 and N2O left at preindustrialFrigola 2018Unpublished - publication plannedAllegra N. LeGrande
HadCM3LMCO1x, 2x, 3xGetech/Robertsons/ScoteseUnpublished - paper submittedAlex Farnsworth
iCESM1.2MCO, with high and low summer insolation sensitivity experiments at 2x CO2, and Central America and Tethys Gateways sensitivity experiments at 2x CO21x, 2x, 4xFrigola 2018Unpublished - publication plannedClay Tabor & Hamida Ngoma Nadoya
CESM2284.7 ppm and 400 ppmFrigola 2018A large-scale climate overview paper planned. Various pieces published in Reichgelt, T., Baumgartner, A., Feng, R. and Willard, D.A., 2023. Poleward amplification, seasonal rainfall and forest heterogeneity in the Miocene of the eastern USA. Global and Planetary Change, 222, p.104073. and Bahadori, A., Holt, W.E., Feng, R., Austermann, J., Loughney, K.M., Salles, T., Moresi, L., Beucher, R., Lu, N., Flesch, L.M. and Calvelage, C.M., 2022. Coupled influence of tectonics, climate, and surface processes on landscape evolution in southwestern North America. Nature communications, 13(1), p.4437.Ran Feng
CESM1.2 and iCESM1.2MMCO400ppmFrigola 2018Yong Sun, Lin Ding, Baohuang Su, Christian Stepanek, Ramstein Gilles (2024). Simulating surface warming in Earth's three polar regions during the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum using isotopic and non-isotopic versions of the Community Earth System Model. Paleo-3 (under 2nd review).Yong Sun
CESM1.2 (CAM4)Langhian854.1 ppm (3x PI)Getech Plc. (Updated, 2023), with and without ice sheets, Langhian solar forcing (1359.51 Wm-2) or PI solar forcingUnpublished - publication plannedMartin Renoult
CESM1.2 (CAM5)Langhian854.1 ppm (3x PI)Getech Plc. (Updated, 2023), with and without ice sheets, Langhian solar forcing (1359.51 Wm-2) or PI solar forcingUnpublished - publication plannedMartin Renoult

MioMIP2 (Phase 1)

As part of  the coordinated MioMIP2 Phase 1 effort, several modeling groups have begun running MCO simulations using the updated Herold boundary conditions published in Burls et al. (2021). The output from the Phase 1 simulations should be added to the DeepMIP-Miocene database (see below) and made available to the larger community following a dissemination strategy that will be outlined in the MioMIP2 experimental design paper.

Table 2: Experiment names for MioMIP2 phase 1

Experiment NameLong NameCO2 (ppmv)
deepmip-miomip2-p1-PIPreindustrial reference280
deepmip-miomip2-p1-x1Miocene x1 (Phase 1)280
deepmip-miomip2-p1-x2Miocene x2 (Phase 1)560
deepmip-miomip2-p1-x3Miocene x3 (Phase 1)
deepmip-miomip2-p1-x4Miocene x4 (Phase 1)1120

MioMIP2 (Phase 2)

Once published, the MioMIP2 experimental design paper will outline the boundary conditions and experimental protocols that modeling groups will use for the MioMIP2 Phase 2 CORE and sensitivity experiments.

DeepMIP-Miocene model database

Model groups should add output for the last 100 model years from any MioMIP2 simulation to the DeepMIP model database following the upload instructions.